Iskanje tehnike v kitajski filozofski tradiciji

Izvleček V članku se bom ukvarjala z razmerjem med pojmoma Qi in Dao v konfucianski in daoistični filozofiji ter se vprašala o tem, kako se primerjata s pojmom techne iz evropske filozofske misli. Pri tem se bom opirala na delo Question Concerning Technology in China (2016) hongkonškega filozofa Yuka Huia, ki poskuša z ustvarjanjem novega pojma kozmotehnik pojasniti oziroma bolje nasloviti vprašanje tehnologije/tehnološke civilizacije v 21. stoletju. Članek bom začela z uvodno predstavitvijo problema in … Continue reading Iskanje tehnike v kitajski filozofski tradiciji

Recenzija knjige “O odločanju in osebni avtonomiji”

Strle, Toma, in Olga Markič. 2021. O odločanju in osebni avtonomiji. Ur. Boris Vezjak. Maribor: Aristej. Knjiga Tomaja Strleta in Olge Markič,[1]Tako Toma Strle kot Olga Markič, oba doktorja filozofije, sta predavatelja na interdisciplinarnem študijskem programu Kognitivna znanost na Univerzi v Ljubljani. Strle je docent za področje … Continue reading ki jo je v sklopu humanistične in družboslovne zbirke Dialogi izdala mariborska založba Aristej, prinaša koncizen in … Continue reading Recenzija knjige “O odločanju in osebni avtonomiji”

Defragmenting experience – from James to Merleau-Ponty

Until recent decades, William James was rarely mentioned in the context of the thought of phenomenologists such as Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger or Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The mentioning of James coincided more with the views of pragmatism, radical empiricism, or pluralism, so it was on rare occasions that the word phenomenology was used in connection with the great American philosopher. But recently, James’ findings are increasingly used in attempts to understand phenomenological thought, where he is also considered as a philosopher who contributed to the development of some phenomenological concepts, such as the notion of Husserl’s “horizon”, “object of thought”, and “intentionality”. His findings are mentioned both in empirical research of experience and in psychological circles. Given the rise of interest in James and the use of his concepts in the theoretical queries of phenomenology, as well as in empirical approaches to the study of consciousness and experience, I want to explore the ideas of the stream of thought and fringe awareness from James’s corpus by approaching the idea through the lens of Merleau-Ponty’s thought. My overall goal in this text is to show how the latter’s phenomenological explorations can help to enrich the former’s endeavours. Continue reading Defragmenting experience – from James to Merleau-Ponty

Listening to myself singing: The structural constitution of musical absorption

“Before this position [in the gallery] there was without doubt nothing. And certainly nothing will remove it. This position is not, as Husserl would have it, a captured-understanding between intuitions or presentations. No perception of a bright day of presence outside the gallery is given to us, and certainly not promised. The gallery is a labyrinth which itself contains its own exits: we have never fallen into it as into some special casus of experience, the one that Husserl then thinks he is describing. It then remains for us to speak, for the voice to echo down the corridors, to replace the glamour of presence. The phoneme, the acumen, is the phenomenon of the labyrinth. It is the casus phone. It rises to the sun of presence, but it is Icarus’ way.” – Jacques Derrida, Glas, p. 85 Continue reading Listening to myself singing: The structural constitution of musical absorption

Cognitive phenomenology through the lens of empirical research

There is a presupposition hardly in need of defending that human experience is, in large part, a sensory affair. We see, we hear, we feel, we smell, we taste (and these are just the more well known sensations). Most people should also be intimately familiar with emotive experiences, such as joy, sadness, anger, fear and so on. Although we might not be able to give a detailed theoretical account of the experiential character of each (or any) of those sensory and emotive states, we can at least appreciate a certain meaningful and unique what-it-is-like-ness about them. To put it simply: every sensory and emotive state can be ascribed a corresponding sensory or emotive experience.

Trying to do the same with cognitive states (such as thinking, believing, remembering…) – that is to ascribe a cognitive experience to a cognitive state – stirs up a degree of controversy. There are numerous authors who claim various versions of there simply not being any such experience as a cognitive experience, and that we are only aware of our own cognitive states by virtue of the sensory experiences they elicit. Yet there are also numerous authors who claim the counterfactual, that there indeed is a unique way of experiencing a cognitive state which cannot be reduced to sensory or emotive experience – and which can therefore be referred to as cognitive experience. This controversy is at the heart of the so-called cognitive phenomenology debate. Continue reading Cognitive phenomenology through the lens of empirical research

Metafizika in epistemologija Mullā Sadre

Ko govorimo o islamski filozofiji, je ime iranskega filozofa Mullā Ṣadrā na slovenskem prostoru precej neznano: ponavadi se islamsko filozofijo povezuje z najbolj reprezentativnimi filozofi islamske zlate dobe, ko so se tudi začeli znameniti projekti prevajanja in komentiranja najpomembnejših grških tekstov iz področja znanosti, filozofije in medicine v arabščino. Islamska zlata doba je ponavadi opredeljena kod obdobje med 8 in 12 stoletjem, ki je obrodilo tudi najizrazitejše znanstvenike in filozofe, kot sta Al Farabi (Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzalagh al-Farabioko; cca. 870 – 950 n.št) ustanovitelj arabske sholastike ter eden prvih filozofov, ki je Aristotelovo Logiko prenesel v islamski svet, zaradi česa je bil med srednjeveškimi muslimanskimi intelektualci znan tudi kot »drugi učitelj«, naslednik Aristotela, »prvega učitelja«; ter Ibn Sīnā (980 – 1037 n.št.) znan tudi po latinizirani inačici svojega imena, Avicena, polimat, vodilni filozof islamskega sveta ter neoplatonist, za katerega amerški strokovnjak za antično in srednjeveško filozofijo Peter Adamson pravi, da je »[…] njegov vpliv na takratno intelektualno dogajanje v neki točki presegel celo vpliv Aristotela«. Continue reading Metafizika in epistemologija Mullā Sadre

Od zaznave do jezika: Merleau-Pontyjev (skorajšnji) obrat k fenomenologiji jezika

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) je študentom filozofije večinoma znan po svoji kritiki tradicionalnih empirističnih in intelektualističnih teorij zaznave v uvodu Fenomenologije zaznave (1945). Manj študentov pa je verjetno seznanjeno s tem, da se je Merleau-Ponty v poznih letih svojega filozofskega ustvarjanja začel pospešeno posvečati fenomenu jezika. Akademskemu zanemarjanju te plati Merleau-Pontyjevega opusa verjetno botruje dejstvo, da je francoska državna knjižnica (Bibliothèque nationale de France) šele v zadnjem desetletju izdala številna dela (večinoma transkribirana predavanja), v katerih Merleau-Ponty razpravlja o povezavah med jezikom in zaznavo. Z objavo teh del je Bibliothèque nationale de France raziskovalcem Merleau-Pontyjevega opusa tlakovala pot za študij integracije njegovih zgodnjih in zrelih del. Poprej so se učenjaki pri raziskovanju njegovih razmislekov o jeziku zanašali predvsem na dve zbirki esejev, Signes (1960) in La prose du monde (1969), deloma pa tudi na njegova transkribirana predavanja o otroški psihologiji in pedagogiki, ki so izšla v knjigi Psychologie et pédagogie de l’enfant (2010). A šele novejša dela nam odkrivajo Merleau-Pontyjev pogled na vprašanje odnosa med jezikom in zaznavo. Continue reading Od zaznave do jezika: Merleau-Pontyjev (skorajšnji) obrat k fenomenologiji jezika

O ortogonalnosti in diagonalnosti: kaj zasleduje inteligenca?

V tem prispevku bom predstavila dve nehumanistični možnosti obravnave vprašanja (umetne) inteligence oziroma se bo prispevek – kot nakazuje podnaslov – osredotočal na vprašanje: kaj zasleduje inteligenca? Odgovor na to vprašanje bom poskušala poiskati s pomočjo dveh sodobnih filozofov; prvi je akceleracionistični filozof Nick Land, drugi pa neoracionalistični filozof Reza Negarestani. Continue reading O ortogonalnosti in diagonalnosti: kaj zasleduje inteligenca?